means school of thought
or Islamic jurisprudence, is the legal interpretation of the Qur'an as used for civil and criminal law. Sharia poses
a difficult question for secular communities. Should adoption of Sharia as civil code by Islamic segments of the community
be allowed? Because the legal judgment is based on a specific fiqh and there is no distinction made in Sharia between
civil and criminal activity, interfaith and multi-sect communities are indescriminately exposed to a particular "brand" of
Islam. Even in communities that adopt Sharia for civil compliance only, without a distinction between civil and criminal
activity, a stoning death execution for adulterer, fornicator or even rape victim becomes a possibility if a particularly
extreme fiqh is chosen. Extreme clothing restrictions lead to the suppression of movement and job opportunities for women.
In most western societies the allowance for Sharia is the same as that for the Ten Commandments or Principles for Higher
Living and that is the recognition that it is a good and moral code. Judgments resulting from infractions are
spiritual. Submission to fiscal or physical redress of Sharia violations are voluntary and cannot violate constitutional,
federal, provincial or local law; however, several Sharia movements are petitioning for civil code authority within Islamic
communities wishing to segregate from secular society.
is based on Qur'an sura 3:28: "Let not the believers take for friends or helpers unbelievers rather than believers. If any
do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah; except by way of precaution, that ye may guard yourselves from them."
to the Jafari fiqh, the basis of Shia jurisprudence, in instances where a Muslim's life or limb is threatened, a Muslim is
allowed to live as if he were not Muslim in so far as necessary to assimilate into the community. There are strict guidelines
for this observance. For example, if it may lead to the death of an innocent person, it is not permissible. This is
because it is forbidden to kill another human being to save your own life.
According to ibn Kathiri fiqh, one variant of Sunni jurisprudence, taqiyya is permitted only to guarantee one's own safety
to the extent that a Muslim can pretend to be a friend to a non-believer but are not allowed to truly be a friend to a non-believer.